Top-rated ScreenCasts

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07.11 - The molecular basis of equations of state: analytical theories Click here. 100 1

Nature of Molecular Energy - Example Calculation(8min, uakron.edu) Given an estimate for the radial distribution function (RDF) integrate to obtain an estimate of the internal energy. The result provides an alternative to the attractive term of the vdW EOS.

01.6 Summary Click here. 100 1

Keys to the Kingdom of Chemical Engineering (uakron.edu, 11min) Sometimes it helps to reduce a subject to its simplest key elements in order to "see the forest instead of the trees." In this presentation, the entire subject of Chemical Engineering is reduced to three key elements: sizing a reactor (Uakron.edu, 7min), sizing a distillation column (uakron.edu, 9min), and sizing a heat exchanger (uakron.edu, 9min). In principle, these elements involve the independent subjects of kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport phenomena. In reality, each element involves thermodynamics to some extent. Distillation involves thermodynamics in the most obvious way because relative volatility and activity coefficients are rarely discussed in a kinetics or transport course. In kinetics, however, the rate of reaction depends on the partial pressures of the reactants and their nearness to the equilibrium concentrations, which are thermodynamical quantities. In heat exchangers, the heat transfer coefficient is important, but we also need to know the temperatures for the source and sink of the heat transfer; these temperatures are often dictated by thermodynamical constraints like the boiling temperature or boiler temperature required to run a Rankine cycle (cf. Chapter 5). In case you are wondering about the subject of "mass and energy balances," the conservation of mass is much like the conservation of energy; therefore, we subsume this subject under the general umbrella of thermodynamics. Understanding the distinctions between thermodynamics and other subjects should help you to frame a place for this knowledge in your mind. Understanding the interconnection of thermodynamics with subjects to be covered later should help you to appreciate the necessity of filing this knowledge away for the long term, such that it can be retrieved at any time in the future.

If you would like a little more practice with reactor mass balances and partial pressure, more screencasts are available from LearnChemE.com, MichiganTech, and popular chemistry websites.

10.06 - Relating VLE to Distillation Click here. 100 1

Distillation is the primary choice for separations in the petrochemical industry. Because the majority of chemical processing involves separations/purifications, that makes distillation the biggest economic driver in all of chemical production. Therefore, it is very important for chemical engineers to understand how distillation works (21min, uakron.edu) and how VLE plays the major role. This video is a bit long, but it puts into context how phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties relate to very important practical applications. You may find it helpful to reinforce the conceptual video with some sample calculations.(12min) At the end of the video, you should be able to answer the following:

Consider the acetone+ethanol system. Use SCVP (Eqn 2.47) to answer the following.

  1. Sketch a Txy diagram for acetone+ethanol at 1 bar with accurate Tsat's. Label completely.
  2. Which component pertaining to #1 would have enhanced concentration in the distillate?
  3. Accurately sketch the yx diagram pertaining to #1
  4. Use Raoult's Law to estimate αLH pertaining to #1.
  5. Use your sketch from 3 to estimate Nmin  to go from x1=0.1 to 0.9.
  6. Use the Fenske equation to estimate Nmin  with splits of 0.9 and 0.1.
01.5 Real Fluids and Tabulated Properties Click here. 100 2

Double interpolation (uakron, 8min) is exactly what it sounds like: to find a steam property when neither the pressure nor temperature are among the tabulated values, you need to interpolate twice. We interpolate first on pressure, then on temperature. It is a bit tedious, but straightforward.

Comprehension Questions:
1. Describe how you would use double interpolation to obtain H if given T=275 C and P=0.45MPa.
2. Describe how you would use double interpolation to obtain H if given T=275 C and V=0.555m3/kg.

13.04 - UNIQUAC Click here. 100 3

Volumes and Areas from Group Contributions (3:04)

Group contributions are used widely in property prediction. The volumes and surface areas have been determined by x-ray data and high-temperature collision data. The UNIQUAC and UNIFAC activity coefficient methods use these quantities to calculation volume fractions and surface area fractions. The assignment of functional groups for a molecule must be done carefully to assure agreement with the groups used by the model developers.

Comprehension Questions:

1. Estimate R and Q for 1,4 dihydroxy benzene.

2. Estimate R and Q for n-propyl alcohol and compare them to the values for IPA.

3. Estimate R and Q for methyl-npropyl ketone.

10.08 - Concepts for Generalized Phase Equilibria Click here. 100 1

When expressing the derivative of the total Gibbs energy by chain rule, there is one particular partial derivative that relates to each component in the mixture: the "chemical potential." By adapting the derivation from Chapter 9 of the equilibrium constraint for pure fluids, we can show that the equilibrium constraint for mixtures is that the chemical potential of each component in each phase must be equal. That is fine mathematically but it is not very intuitive. By translating the chemical potential into a rigorous definition of fugacity of a component in a mixture, we recognize that an equivalent equilibrium constraint is that the fugacity of each component in each phase must be equal. (8min, Live, uakron.edu) This offers the intuitive perspective of, say, molecules from the liquid escaping to the vapor and molecules from the vapor escaping to the liquid; when the "escaping tendencies" are equal, the phases experience no net change and we call that equilibrium. 

10.08 - Concepts for Generalized Phase Equilibria Click here. 100 1

Concepts for General Phase Equilibria (12:33) (msu.edu)

The calculus used in Chapter 6 needs to be generalized to add composition dependence. Also, we introduce partial molar properties and composition derivatives that are not partial molar properties. We introduce chemical potential These concepts are used to show that the chemical potentials and component fugacities are used as criteria for phase equilibria.

14.10 Solid-liquid Equilibria Click here. 100 3

Solid-liquid Equilibria using Excel (7:38min, msu)

The strategy for solving SLE is discussed and an example generating a couple points from Figure 14.12 of the text are performed. Most of the concepts are not unique to UNIFAC or Excel. This screeencast shows how to use the solver tool to find solubility at at given temperature.

10.02 - Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) Calculations Click here. 100 2

VLE Routines - General Strategies (4:49) (msu.edu)

Deciding which routine to use is more challenging than it appears. Also understanding the strategy used to solve the problems is extremely helpful in being able to develop the equations to solve instead of trying to memorize them.

12.04 - The Flory-Huggins Model Click here. 100 2

The Flory and Flory-Huggins Models (7:05) (msu.edu)

Flory recognized the importance of molecular size on entropy, and the Flory equation is an important building block for many equations in Chapter 13. Flory introduced the importance of free volume. The Flory-Huggins model combines the Flory equation with the Scatchard-Hildebrand model using the degree of polymerization and the parameter χ. The Flory-Huggins model is used widely in the polymer industry.

Comprehension Questions:

Assume δP=δS for polystyrene, where δS is the solubility parameter for styrene. Also, polystyrene typically has a molecular weight of about 15,000. Room temperature is 25°C.

1. Estimate the infinite dilution activity coefficient of styrene in polystyrene.
2. Estimate the infinite dilution activity coefficient of toluene in polystyrene.
3. Estimate the infinite dilution activity coefficient of acetone in polystyrene.
4. Which of the above would be the "best" solvent for polystyrene? Explain quantitatively.

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