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|04.09 Turbine calculations||Click here.||100||2||
Entropy Balances: Solving for Turbine Efficiency Sample Calculation. (uakron.edu, 10min) Steam turbines are very common in power generation cycles. Knowing how to compute the actual work, reversible work, and compare them is an elementary part of any engineering thermodynamics course.
1. An adiabatic turbine is supplied with steam at 2.0 MPa and 600°C and it exhausts at 98% quality and 24°C. (a) Compute the work output per kg of steam.(b) Compute the efficiency of the turbine.
2. A Rankine cycle operates on steam exiting the boiler at 7 MPa and 550°C and expanding to 60°C and 98% quality. Compute the efficiency of the turbine.
|02.01 Expansion/Contraction Work||Click here.||100||2||
Vocabulary in Sections 2.1-2.3: Forms of "Work." (uakron.edu, 11 min) Making cookies is hard work. In discussing work, we develop several shorthand terms to refer to specific common situations: expansion-contraction work, shaft work, flow work, stirring work, "lost" work. These terms comprise the headings of sections 2.1-2.3, but it is convenient to discuss them all at once. The important thing to remember is that work is really just force times distance, pure and simple. The shorthand terms are not intended to complicate the discussion, but to expedite the analysis of the energy balance. Developing some familiarity with the terms related to common daily experiences may help you to assimilate this new vocabulary.
|10.02 - Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) Calculations||Click here.||100||2||
VLE Routines - General Strategies (4:49) (msu.edu)
Deciding which routine to use is more challenging than it appears. Also understanding the strategy used to solve the problems is extremely helpful in being able to develop the equations to solve instead of trying to memorize them.
|05.4 - Refrigeration||Click here.||100||2||
Refrigeration Cycle Introduction (LearnChemE.com, 3min) explains each step in an ordinary vapor compression (OVC) refrigeration cycle and the energy balance for the step. You might also enjoy the more classical introduction (USAF, 11min) representing your tax dollars at work. The musical introduction is quite impressive and several common misconceptions are addressed near the end of the video.
|11.02 - Calculations with Activity Coefficients||Click here.||100||4||
Dew Temperature (7:57) (msu.edu)
The culmination of the activity coefficient method is application of the fitted activity coefficients to extrapolate from limited experiments in a Stage III calculation. The recommended order of study is 1) Bubble Pressure; 2) Bubble Temperature; 3) Dew Pressure; 4) Dew Temperature. Note that an entire Txy diagram can be generated with bubble temperature calculations; no dew calculations are required. However, many applications require dew calculations, so they cannot be avoided. The dew calculations are more complicated than bubble calculations, because the liquid activity coefficients are not known until the unknown liquid mole fractions are found. This screencast describes the procedure and how to implement the method in Matlab or Excel.
|07.06 Solving The Cubic EOS for Z||Click here.||100||1||
5. Peng Robinson Using Solver for PVT and Vapor Pressure - Excel (4:42) (msu.edu)
Describes use of the Goal Seek and Solver tools for Peng-Robinson PVT properties and vapor pressure.
1. Which of the following represents the vapor pressure for argon at 100K?
|08.02 - The Internal Energy Departure Function||Click here.||100||2||
The Internal Energy Departure Function (11min, uakron.edu) Deriving departure functions for a variety of equations of state is simplified by transforming to dimensionless units and using density instead of volume. This also leads to an extra simplification for the internal energy departure function.
1. What is the value of T(∂P/∂T)V - P for an ideal gas?
|05.2 - The Rankine cycle||Click here.||100||1||
Rankine Cycle Introduction (LearnChemE.com, 4min) The Carnot cycle becomes impractical for common large scale application, primarily because H2O is the most convenient working fluid for such a process. When working with H2O, an isentropic turbine could easily take you from a superheated region to a low quality steam condition, essentially forming large rain drops. To understand how this might be undesirable, imagine yourself riding through a heavy rain storm at 60 mph with your head outside the window. Now imagine doing it 24/7/365 for 10 years; that's how long a high-precision, maximally efficient turbine should operate to recover its price of investment. Next you might ask why not use a different working fluid that does not condense, like air or CO2. The main problem is that the heat transfer coefficients of gases like these are about 40 times smaller that those for boiling and condensing H2O. That means that the heat exchangers would need to be roughly 40 times larger. As it is now, the cooling tower of a nuclear power plant is the main thing that you see on the horizon when approaching from far away. If that heat exchanger was 40 times larger... that would be large. And then we would need a similar one for the nuclear core. Power cycles based on heating gases do exist, but they are for relatively small power generators.
|11.02 - Calculations with Activity Coefficients||Click here.||100||3||
Bubble Temperature (2:43) (msu.edu)
The culmination of the activity coefficient method is application of the fitted activity coefficients to extrapolate from limited experiments in a Stage III calculation. The bubble temperature is the easiest after bubble pressure. The recommended order of study is 1) Bubble Pressure; 2) Bubble Temperature; 3) Dew Pressure; 4) Dew Temperature. Note that an entire Txy diagram can be generated with bubble temperature calculations; no dew calculations are required.
|17.07 - Temperature Dependence of Ka||Click here.||100||2||
Example 17.4 and 17.5 solved using Kcalc.xlsx (6:01) (msu.edu)
The full form of the temperature dependence of Ka is implemented in Kcalc.xlsx and Kcalc.m. This screecast covers the use of Kcalc.xlsx for Example 17.4 and Example 17.5 of the textbook.
1. CO and H2 are fed in a 2:1 ratio to a reactor at 500K and 20 bars with a catalyst that favors only CH3OH as its product. Calculate ΔGRº and ΔHRº.