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03.3 - Introduction to Mixture Properties Click here. 100 1

Props.xlsx has a lot of data, but usually we are only interested in a few components at a time. Adding a few lines at the top and applying the VLookup function makes it easy to tabulate the properties you need. (8min,

Comprehension questions

1. Download the latest version of Props.xlsx from sourceforge. Add lines to support 8 components of interest and cells to compute Psat given T as input and Tsat given P as input by appropriately arranging Eqn. 2.47. Add a column for computing Hvap at Tsat for each component by Eqn. 2.45.

2. Insert a sheet(tab) called Hrxn in Props.xlsx. Types the names for components in the reaction CO+0.5O2=CO2. Use VLookup to tabulate the Hf values for each component. To the left of the name column, insert cells to represent the stoichiometric coefficients. Then calculate the heat of reaction by using the sumproduct() function applied to the stoichiometric coefficients and Hf values. Check your result with a hand calculation.

3. Download the latest versions of PREOS.xls and Props.xlsx from sourceforge. Update the Props tab appropriately. Then implement the VLookup function on the ThermoProps tab of PREOS so all you need to do is type the name of the compound of interest in order to update the ThermoProps sheet to all properties of interest. We discuss how to use PREOS.xls to solve problems in Unit II.

08.08 - Reference States Click here. 100 1

This sample calculation shows how to compute the liquefaction in the Linde process for methane as the operating fluid. (uakron, 8min) The Linde process is a slight variation on the OVC cycle wherein the liquefied fraction exiting the throttle is captured as product and removed from the process. There is also heat integration in the sense that the cold vapor is used to precool the feed to the throttle.

FYI: Since natural gas is mostly methane, this process could be easily adapted to the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquified petroleum gas (LPG, mostly propane). Liquefied gases may seem impractical when you first encounter them, but they are more efficient for transport because they are so much more dense than the gases. Keeping them as liquids is basically a reflection of the effectiveness of the insulation. If any gas leaks from the relief valve (~1.1 bar), then liquid must evaporate to fill the space. The requisite heat of vaporization in that case cools the remaining below the boiling temperature. No heat = no vaporization.

09.04 - Changes in Gibbs Energy with Pressure Click here. 100 1

Gibbs Energy - Nuts to Soup. (, 8min) It is straightforward to start from the definition of Gibbs Energy and derive all the changes in Gibbs energy. These can be graphed for H2O to see how familiar quantities from the steam tables relate to changes in this unfamiliar property.

09.05 - Fugacity and Fugacity Coefficient Click here. 100 1

What is fugacity? (10min) ( Defines fugacity in terms of Gibbs Energy and describes the need for defining this new property as a generalization of how pressure affects ideal gases.
Comprehension Questions
1. The phases in this video start with concentrations 0.0007kg/L and 1.0 kg/L, when not at equilibrium. What are the equilibrium concentrations?
2. Why is concentration an unreliable indicator for the direction of mass transfer?
3. Name two indicators for the direction of mass transfer that are superior to concentration.  

04.09 Turbine calculations Click here. 100 2

Entropy Balances: Solving for Turbine Efficiency Sample Calculation. (, 10min) Steam turbines are very common in power generation cycles. Knowing how to compute the actual work, reversible work, and compare them is an elementary part of any engineering thermodynamics course.

Comprehension Questions:

1. An adiabatic turbine is supplied with steam at 2.0 MPa and 600°C and it exhausts at 98% quality and 24°C. (a) Compute the work output per kg of steam.(b) Compute the efficiency of the turbine.

2. A Rankine cycle operates on steam exiting the boiler at 7 MPa and 550°C and expanding to 60°C and 98% quality. Compute the efficiency of the turbine.

09.05 - Fugacity and Fugacity Coefficient Click here. 100 1

In a contest for "the most hated word in Chemical Engineering," fugacity won by a landslide. This video (15min, reviews how the term was developed and why it's not really as bad as all that. In fact, it's a nice word that sets the stage for all of phase and reaction equilibrium with a straightforward extension of the same conceptual basis to mixtures. On second thought, perhaps the power of that conceptual basis and all that it implies is what really intimidates new students. Many perspectives have been offered to help overcome the frustration that students feel toward fugacity. If you like a comic book perspective, even that is available.

Comprehension Questions:

1.What is the fugacity of a vapor phase component in a mixture according to Raoult's law?
2.What is the fugacity of a liquid phase component in a mixture according to Raoult's law?
3. What word is modern usage is closely related to the latin root "fuga-"?
4. Water is in VLE at 0.7 bars in a fixed volume vessel. Five cm3 of air are injected into the vessel and the temperature is allowed to return to its original value. Does the water in the vapor phase increase, decrease, or remain the same? (, 2min) (Hint: you may assume that air does not dissolve in the liquid water and the pressure is sufficiently low that the vapor can be assumed to behave as an ideal gas.)

05.4 - Refrigeration Click here. 100 2

Refrigeration Cycle Introduction (, 3min) explains each step in an ordinary vapor compression (OVC) refrigeration cycle and the energy balance for the step. You might also enjoy the more classical introduction (USAF, 11min) representing your tax dollars at work. The musical introduction is quite impressive and several common misconceptions are addressed near the end of the video.
Comprehension Questions: Assume zero subcooling and superheating in the condenser and evaporator.
1. An OVC operates with 43 C in the condenser and -33 C in the evaporator. Why is the condenser temperature higher than than the evaporator temperature? Shouldn't it be the other way around? Explain.
2. An OVC operates with 43 C in the condenser and -33 C in the evaporator. The operating fluid is R134a. Estimate the pressures in the condenser and evaporator using the table in Appendix E-12.
3. An OVC operates with 43 C in the condenser and -33 C in the evaporator. The operating fluid is R134a. Estimate the pressures in the condenser and evaporator using the chart in Appendix E-12.
4. An OVC operates with 43 C in the condenser and -33 C in the evaporator. The operating fluid is R134a. Estimate the pressures in the condenser and evaporator using Eqn 2.47.
5. An OVC operates with 43 C in the condenser and -33 C in the evaporator. Assume the compressor of the OVC cycle is adiabatic and reversible. What two variables (P,V,T,U,H,S) determine the state at the outlet of the compressor?

07.06 Solving The Cubic EOS for Z Click here. 100 1

6. Solving for density (, 9min) An alternative to solving directly for Z is to solve for density then compute Z=P/(ρRT). This requires iterative solution and it is not very expedient for repetitive calculations, but it requires no rearrangement of the EOS and it is easy to visualize. This sample calculation is illustrated here for the vdW EOS, solving for the density of propane as: (a) liquid 25C,11bars (b) liquid 62C,35bars (c) vapor at 80C and 30bars.

Comprehension Questions:

1. Solve for the liquid density (mol/cm3) of n-pentane at 62C and 2.5 bars using the vdW EOS.
2. Solve for the Z-factor of liquid n-pentane at 62C and 2.5 bars using the vdW EOS.
3. What's the value of the Z-factor at 80C and 30 bars according to this presentation?

05.2 - The Rankine cycle Click here. 100 1

Rankine Cycle Introduction (, 4min) The Carnot cycle becomes impractical for common large scale application, primarily because H2O is the most convenient working fluid for such a process. When working with H2O, an isentropic turbine could easily take you from a superheated region to a low quality steam condition, essentially forming large rain drops. To understand how this might be undesirable, imagine yourself riding through a heavy rain storm at 60 mph with your head outside the window. Now imagine doing it 24/7/365 for 10 years; that's how long a high-precision, maximally efficient turbine should operate to recover its price of investment. Next you might ask why not use a different working fluid that does not condense, like air or CO2. The main problem is that the heat transfer coefficients of gases like these are about 40 times smaller that those for boiling and condensing H2O. That means that the heat exchangers would need to be roughly 40 times larger. As it is now, the cooling tower of a nuclear power plant is the main thing that you see on the horizon when approaching from far away. If that heat exchanger was 40 times larger... that would be large. And then we would need a similar one for the nuclear core. Power cycles based on heating gases do exist, but they are for relatively small power generators.
     With this background, it may be helpful to review the relation between the Carnot and Rankine cycles. (, 6min) The Carnot cycle is an idealized conceptual process in the sense that it provides the maximum possible fractional conversion of heat into work (aka. thermal efficiency, ηθ).
Comprehension Questions:
1. Why is the Carnot cycle impractical when it comes to running steam through a turbine? How does the Rankine cycle solve this problem?
2. Why is the Carnot cycle impractical when it comes to running steam through a pump? How does the Rankine cycle solve this problem?
3. It is obvious which temperatures are the "high" and "low" temperatures in the Carnot cycle, but not so much in the Rankine cycle. The "boiler" in a Rankine cycle actually consists of "simple boiling" where the saturated liquid is converted to saturated vapor, and superheating where the saturated vapor is raised to the temperature entering the turbine. When comparing the thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle to the Carnot efficiency, should we substitute the temperature during "simple" boiling, or the temperature entering the turbine into the formula for the Carnot efficiency? Explain.

11.02 - Calculations with Activity Coefficients Click here. 100 3

Bubble Temperature (2:43) (

The culmination of the activity coefficient method is application of the fitted activity coefficients to extrapolate from limited experiments in a Stage III calculation. The bubble temperature is the easiest after bubble pressure. The recommended order of study is 1) Bubble Pressure; 2) Bubble Temperature; 3) Dew Pressure; 4) Dew Temperature. Note that an entire Txy diagram can be generated with bubble temperature calculations; no dew calculations are required.