Top-rated ScreenCasts

Text Section Link to original post Rating (out of 100) Number of votes Copy of rated post
08.07 - Implementation of Departure Functions Click here. 20 3

Helmholtz Energy - Mother of All Departure Functions. (uakron.edu, 10min) This screencast begins with a brief perspective on energy and free energy as they relate to concepts from Chapter 1 and through to the end of the course. Then it focuses on how the Helmholtz departure function is one of the most powerful due to the relations that can be developed from it. The Helmholtz departure is relatively easy to develop from a density integral of the compressibility factor. Then the internal energy departure can be derived from a temperature derivative. Alternatively, if the internal energy departure is given, the Helmholtz energy can be inferred by integration, and the compressibility factor can be derived from a density derivative. 
Comprehension Questions: (Hint: some of the following may be answered in later videos below.)
1. Write an equation that takes you from the Helmholtz energy departure function to Z.
2. Write an equation that takes you from the Helmholtz energy departure function to (U-Uig)/RT.
3. Derive the internal energy departure function for the vdW EOS using Eqn. 8.22.
4. Derive the Helmholtz energy departure function for the vdW EOS using Eqn. 8.25.
5. Use the result of #4 to derive the internal energy departure function for the vdW EOS.

08.07 - Implementation of Departure Functions Click here. 20 2

Helmholtz Example - vdW EOS (uakron.edu, 18min) This video begins with a brief review of the connection of the Helmholtz departure with all other departures then shows four sample derivations assuming that Z is given by the vdW EOS: (1) the Helmholtz departure , (2) the internal energy departure from the Helmholtz departure. (3) the Helmholtz energy from the internal energy (4) the Z factor from the Helmholtz departure. The procedures illustrated here can be applied to any EOS starting with any part (U, A, or Z) as given to derive any other departure: ZUHAGS.
Comprehension Questions: The virial EOS for SW fluids can be written as: Z = 1 + Bρ/RT where B = 4b+[4b(λ^3-1)] [exp(βε)-1], b = πNAσ^3/6.
1. Derive an expression for the Helmholtz departure.
2. Use the result of #1 to derive the internal energy departure.
3. Use the result of #2 to derive the Helmholtz departure. What is the integration constant in this case?

08.07 - Implementation of Departure Functions Click here. 20 4

Helmholtz Example - Modified vdW EOS (uakron.edu, 13min) A sample derivation of the Helmholtz departure implicit in the Gibbs departure given Z = 1 + abρ/(1+)^3 - (9.5aρ/RT)/(1+aρ/RT). Note that the limits of integration matter for this EOS. The audio is inferior for this live video, but it responds to typical questions and confusion from students in the audience. Some students might find it helpful to hear the kinds of questions that students ask. The responses slow the derivation down so that no steps are skipped and key steps are reiterated multiple times. Just turn the volume up!
Comprehension questions:
1. Which part of this EOS is non-zero at the zero density limit of integration?
2. Is there a sign error on one of the terms in this video? Check the derivation independently.
3. Derive the Helmholtz departure given Z = 1 + 4bρ/(1-)2 - (9.5aρ/RT)/{1-a/bRT[1-4bρ+4(bρ)2]}.
4. Derive the Helmholtz departure given Z = 1 + 4bρ/(1-2) - (9.5aρ/RT){1+4/bRT[1-2(bρ)2]}/{1-a/bRT[1-4bρ+4(bρ)2]})/{1-a/bRT[1-4bρ+4(bρ)2]}

08.07 - Implementation of Departure Functions Click here. 20 1

Helmholtz Example - Scott+TPT EOS. (uakron.edu) A sample derivation (8min) for the compressibility factor given that (A-Aig)TV/RT = -2ln(1-2ηP) - 18.7ηPβε/[1+0.36βεexp(-5ηP)]. This equation of state is a little complicated, but the derivation is no problem if you just go slow and steady. The remainder of this screencast shows a sample calculation (21min) to solve the resulting equation of state at a given value of pressure and temperature following the methodology of "visualizing the vdW EOS." This problem was adapted from an actual test problem. This screencast is live so the audio is inferior, but it gives insight into questions that real students have. 
Comprehension Questions:
1. Derive an expression for the internal energy departure function of this EOS.
2. Is there a sign error on one of terms in this video? Check the derivation independently.
3. Derive the Z factor given (A-Aig)TV/RT = -2ln(1-2bρ) - (9.5aρ/RT)/{1-a/bRT[1-4bρ+4(bρ)2]}.

07.06 Solving The Cubic EOS for Z Click here. 20 2

Using a macro to create an isotherm (Excel) (msu.edu, 14:31) The tabular Excel display is convenient for viewing all the intermediate values, but no so good for building a table such as for an isotherm. This screencast shows how to write/edit a macro to build a table by copying/pasting values. The screencast creates an isotherm on a Z vs. Pr plot over 0.01 < Pr < 10.

09.06 - Fugacity Criteria for Phase Equilibria Click here. 20 1

When liquid is added to an evacuated tank of fixed volume, equilibrium is established between the vapor and liquid. (3min,learncheme.com) The fugacity criterion characterizes this equilibrium as occurring when the escaping tendency from each phase is equal.

05.2 - The Rankine cycle Click here. 20 1

Rankine Example Using Steam.xls (uakron.edu, 15min) High pressure steam (254C,4.2MPa, Saturated vapor) is being considered for application in a Rankine cycle dropping the pressure to 0.1MPa; compute the Rankine efficiency. This demonstration applies the Steam.xls spreadsheet to get as many properties as possible.

Comprehension Questions:

1. Why does the proposed process turn out to be impractical?

2. What would you need to change in the process to make it work? Assume the high and low temperature limits are the same. Be quantitative.

3. What would be the thermal efficiency of your modified process?

08.07 - Implementation of Departure Functions Click here. 20 1

Internal Energy Departure - PR EOS starting from Helmholtz Departure (uakron.edu,9min) This sample derivation supplements what is in the textbook by starting from the Helmholtz departure function. It also includes a few intermediate steps to help clarify how the formal equations in the textbook were developed. Hopefully, seeing this content from slightly different perspectives will make it a little easier to comprehend. See also the derivation for (U-Uig).

Comprehension Questions: Starting from the Helmholtz Departure function and referring to the above results...

1. Derive the internal energy departure function for the "modified vdW" EOS.
2. Derive the entropy departure function for the "modified vdW" EOS. (Hint: A=U-TS)
3. Derive the internal energy departure function for the "Scott+TPT" EOS.

07.08 Matching The Critical Point Click here. 20 1

Visualizing the vdW EOS (uakron.edu, 16min) Building on solving for density, describes plotting dimensionless isotherms of the vdW EOS for methane at 5 temperatures, two subcritical, two supercritical, and one at the critical condition. From these isotherms in dimensionless form, it is possible to identify the critical point as the location of the inflection point where the temperature first exits the 3-root region. This method can be adapted to any equation of state, whether it is cubic or not. The illustration was adapted from a sample test problem. This screencast also addresses the meaning of the region where the pressure goes negative, with a (possibly disturbing) story about a blood-sucking octopus.

Comprehension Questions:

1. What are the dimensions of the quantity (bP/RT)?
2. Starting with the expression for Z(ρ,T), rewrite the vdW EOS to solve for the quantity (bP/RT) in terms of () and (a/bRT).
3. Consider the following EOS: Z = 1 + 2/(1-2) - (a/bRT) /(1-)2. Estimate the value of bPc/(RTc) for this EOS.
4. Consider the following EOS: Z = 1 + 2/(1-2) - (a/bRT) /(1-)2. Estimate the value of (a/bRTc) for this EOS.
5. Compute the values of a(J-cm3/mol2) and b(cm3/mol) for methane according to this new EOS.

11.01 Modified Raoult's Law and Excess Gibbs Energy Click here. 20 1

Modified Raoult's Law and Excess Gibbs Energy (6:27) (msu.edu)

What are 'postive deviations' and 'negative deviations'? What are the 'rules of the game' for working with deviations from Raoult's law?

This screencast show the three main stages of modeling deviations from Raoult's law: 1) obtaining the activity coefficient from experiment; 2) fitting the activity coefficient to an excess Gibbs energy model; 3) using the fitted model to perform bubble, dew, flash calculations. These three stages are often jumbled up when first learning about activity coefficients, so explicit explanation of the strategy may be helpful.

Pages