# Errata for International Edition, 1st printing, May 2012

Date of change is noted at the end of each erratum.

• xvi E.12, 'ou' should be 'uo' in Tetrafluoroethane (12/30/15)

Chapter 1

• pg 22, Eqn. 1.18 ...  = -2mv(v/4L)= -mv2/2L (12/11/12)

Chapter 2

• pg 42, Eqn. 2.6, in the last argument on the right, V should not be underlined, nor have a dot above. (2/4/16)
• pg 55, Example 2.4, reference to 100 MPa should be replaced with 5MPa and,
VLΔP = 1.002 (cm3/g)(5 MPa - 0.00234 MPa) = 5.008 MPa-cm3/g for 5 MPa
... ΔH = (5.008 MPa-cm3/g) ·(8.314 J/mole-K)/(8.314 MPa-cm3/mole-K) = 5.008 kJ/kg (1/27/13)
• pg 87, center line of table, isobaric work is not dependent on (ig). (7/3/13)
• pg 90, P2.19 solution, (a) 12.5 MPa, (b) 17 kJ. (12/4/14)

Chapter 3

• pg 100, Fig. 3.3, both equations for Qcond should include a minus sign since heat is removed. (1/16/13)
• p116, first line under heading 'Graphical Visualization...' should read: “the energy balance is presented by Method 1 the Heat of Reaction Method (Eqn. 3.51)...”(7/24/14)
• p123, problem 3.5 “The tops of the first column, at 36C, are sent…”  (4/9/15)
• p123, problem 3.7 “Benzene and benzyl chloride chlorobenzene…” Also, at the end of the problem statement, determine the heat duty for the reboiler (kJ/(mol inlet flow)). (7/24/14)

Chapter 4

• pg 133, footnote 9. 'binomial distribution' should be 'binomial coefficient'. Footnote 10, add, 'It is also the multinomial coefficient.' (10/5/12)
• pg 141, Figure 4.2 axis label should be log10<qM> (2/1/13)
• pg 143, Example 4.4, part (a), the saturated liquid volume 0.001186 should be 0.001286. (2/24/13)
• pg 143, Example 4.4, part (c) , first line replace Ud with Ua. (7/24/14)
• pg 143, Example 4.4, Signs are wrong on some of the work terms. Part(a), last line, WEC(a->b) = -PΔV = -5(0.0394 – 0.001286)*1000 = -191.1 J/kg; (c) last line, WEC(d->a) = 1148.21 - 1082.13= 66.08 kJ/kg; (d) 3rd line, Hd - Hc = -1382.81 kJ/kg, last line, WEC(c->d) = -1.0(35.2 – 167.8) = 132.6 MPa-cm3/g = 132.6 kJ/kg; (e) first line, Wnet = (–264.67+66.08–191.1+132.6) = –257.1 kJ/kg, last line, insert minus before 257.4. (2/5/16)
• pg 149, Example 4.6, second line, Compute the change in enthalpy entropy…(7/24/14)
• pg 154, Eqn. above 4.37, Sgen,W should be Sgen,wall (12/30/15)
• pg 157, Example 4.9(cont.), strike second "the" in the top line on this page. (2/7/14)
• pg 161, Example 4.12, In the second and third line, the T for the Cp should be given as 1273K. Cp = 44.37 J/mol, R/Cp ~ 8.314/44.37 = 0.1874. Then (1.1)^(-0.1874)=0.9823 -> T2 = 1273(0.9823) = 1250.5K. (7/24/14).
• pg 165, Fig. 4.8, strike text in caption beginning with ‘showing…’. (2/7/13)
• pg 187, problem 4.1 should be moved to 6.1 and revised in the 2rd printing. Problem 4.1, line 6, equation should read ΔUvib/(RT) = βε/(exp(-βε)-1). Line 8 equation should read Uig/(RT) = 5/2 + βε/(exp(-βε)-1). (12/30/15)
• pg 189, problem 4.12, use Cp = 7R/2, for parts (a) - (c) create a P-T plot instead of a P-V plot. (10/5/12)

Chapter 5

• pg 199-200, Example 5.1. The efficiency of the turbine should be specified as 90% on pg 201. The calculations on pg 202 reference Ex. 4.13(c) that used 90% efficiency. Also the values are marginally different in Example 5.1 due to different round-off (-959 vs. -958 for the work and the H4 and H4' values in the Ex 5.1 table). (2/13/13)
• pg 202, Example 5.2. The efficiciency of the first turbine should be 85% and the efficiency of the second turbine should be 90%. See the errata for pg 201. (2/13/13)
• pg 204, The problem is to be solved given the conditions in the table cells with standard borders.(7/24/14)
• pg 208, last eqn in Ex. 5.4, the last values in the line should be 0.8(3.87) = 3.10. (2/7/13)

Chapter 6

• pg 236, Example 6.6, problem statement (b), the last term of the vdw EOS should be -a/V2. (4/18/17)
• pg 240, Example 6.9, Just after "changing order of differentiation" the quantity inside the square brackets should be (dS/dV)T not (dS/dT)T.(3/4/13)
• pg 246, problem 4.1 should be moved to 6.1. 6.1 will be moved to 4.1. (8/21/12)
• pg 246, problem 6.1 (ie. for CO2) should then say, ...Consider the vibration at eq/k = 952K (546cm–1).
(a) Plot Cvig/R versus T for CO2 in the range 200–400 K using NIST Webbook data. Plot the polynomial expression in the back of the book on the same chart as a dashed line. Adapt the analysis of problem 4.1 to the vibration at 952K while noting that this vibration occurs twice. Plot your vibrational result as a solid line.
(b) Use your Internet search skills to learn the wavelength range of the IR spectrum. How many wavelengths are there? What fraction does the wavelength at 546cm–1 comprise? If the Earth’s atmosphere was composed entirely of CO2, what fraction of IR energy could be absorbed by CO2? (3/4/13)
• pg 247, problem 6.5(b),(c) should reference problem 6.10. (2/11/13)

Chapter 7

• pg 257, Eqn. 7.5 is more clearly written as Z = 1 + BP/(RT), Eqn. 7.6 as Z = 1 + BP/(RT), last equation on the page as B(T)Pc/(RTc) = ... (7/6/13)
• pg 261, Equations are best understood with additional parentheses: 7.20 Z = PV/(RT) = P/(ρRT); 7.21 A = aP/(R2T2); 7.22 B = bP/(RT); 7.23 aρ/(RT) = A/Z. (7/7/13)
• pg 268, Example 7.6, second line, in the equation for (∂U/∂V)T, the argument in the first square brackets is missing temperature, and should be [a-T(da/dT)]. (2/19/18)
• pg 271, Equations are best understood with additional parentheses in 2nd paragraph of text: third line, Z = 1/(1-ηP) - aηP/(bRT); seventh line, ε/(kT); last line, β = 1/(kT). (7/7/13)
• pg 277-8, Example 7.10 has several numerical errors. An updated pdf page is available. Click here. (9/27/13)
• pg 295, problem 7.23, the values of (U - Uig)/RT should be labeled -(U-Uig)/(NA*ε) and should be 7.113, 7.244, 7.499. (4/17/12)
• pg 296, problem 7.25, last line, replace bρ with ρNAσ3. (12/30/15)

Chapter 8

• pg 307, Eqn. 8.23, the constraint of constant density in the partial derivative is omitted, and it should read [∂Z/∂T]ρ. (12/31/12)
• pg 309-10, in the integral at the bottom of 311 and top of 312, the constraint of constant density is omitted, and it should read [∂Z/∂T]ρ. (12/31/12)
• pg 311, The unnumbered equation above equation 8.33, the exponent is wrong on the denominator of dB1/dTr which should read dB1/dTr=0.7224/Tr5.2. (10/1/12)
• pg 314, Eqn 8.35,  In future printings, to avoid confusion, the last arguments beginning with A/B/sqrt(8) will be moved in front of ln. In the equation above 8.35, the terms in the last set of brackets will be moved in front of ln. (10/6/12)
• pg 315, Eqn. 8.37, the term κsqrt(Tr)/sqrt(α) should be (1+ κsqrt(Tr)/sqrt(α)). (10/6/12)
• pg 316, Eqn. 8.38, the term -ln(Z-B) should be +ln(Z-B). (10/6/12)
• pg 323, practice problem 8.4, Answer should replace Boltzmann's constant (k) with R in denominator because NA is applied in numerator. (3/13/17)
• pg 326, footnote 3 should reference problem 7.4. (4/18/17)
• pg 330, problems 8.34, the values of -U/ε should be labeled -(U-Uig)/(NA*ε) and should be: 2.99, 3.04, 3.23, 3.47, 3.76. (4/17/12)

Chapter 9

• pg 359, problem 9.3, next to last line, 10 cm x 0.01 cm blades. (12/30/15)
• pg 360, problem 9.11, perform the calculations at 80oC. (11/27/12)

Chapter 10

• pg 369, Table 10.1, FL and FA Criteria. The 1 in the denominator should not have a subscript (1/27/13)
• pg 374, last paragraph, second/third line, V/F is the vapor-to-feed ratio. (3/11/13)
• pg 375, Eqn. 10.17 The Ki terms in the denominator should be K1and K2 respectively. (3/11/13)
• pg385, Eqn. 10.31, the LFL should be divided by 100 since it is in percent, Σ(yi/(LFLi/100))=1. (5/16/12)
• pg 395, Table, first column, minus missing from -SdT for dA and dG. Also, last column should include extensive variables and {ni} for open systems. (8/6/18)
• pg 398, Eqn. 10.56, before last summation, replace R with RT. (12/30/15)
• pg 404, problem 10.4, the flash drum should be at 0.05 MPa.(10/2/12)

Chapter 11

• pg 413, example 11.2, 2nd line should reference Fig 11.1. (4/18/17)
• pg 419, last paragraph before Section 11.3, line 4, "In Section 13.1..." should be "In Section 12.5..." (12/30/15)
• pg 452, problem 11.4, first line: replace P-x-y with T-x-y. (8/21/12)
• pg 454, problem 11.18 should say, "Assume MAB solution thermodynamics with GE/RT=ΣΣxixjAij..." (1/27/13)
• pg 457, problem 11.24(c), make a separate plot. (11/27/12)

Chapter 12

• pg 466, the solubility parameter for pyridine should be 21.57. (4/9/15)
• pg 481, swap the column labels for B and W. There are minor roundoff issues in some of the tabulated values in the example. (12/11/14)
• pg 485, Eqn. 12.61, UE - RT... should be UE + RT... (12/30/15)
• pg 488, problem P12.1, using shortcut vp for acrolein and Antoine for water, (a) A12 = 1.91, A21 = 2.42; (b) T should be 325.55K rather than 326.55K, P(bar) = {0.653, 0.998, 1.03}. (10/22/14)
• pg 488, problem P12.4, eq. 12.64, delete the delta in the denominator of the second term.(12/11/14)
• pg 489, problem 12.2 should say, "The liquid phase can be modeled by the van Laar model with V2=1.3V1." (1/27/13)

Chapter 13

• pg 501, Eqn. 13.28, GE should have underbar. (10/25/15)
• pg 503, Eqn. 13.35, NRTL eqn. for γ2, in the second term, the numerator (G21)2 should be (G12)2. (3/24/13)

Chapter 14

• pg 533, example 14.2, third text line from the bottom, 'Using Eqns. 11.46 and 11.47' should read 'Using Eqns. 12.36 and 12.37'. (4/9/13)
• pg 558, Eqn 14.26, RT lnK should be lnK, (delete RT). (7/22/13)
• pg 565, Table 14.2, the β and α should be swapped in the last two columns. E.g. phenol should be more acidic than basic. (1/27/13)
• pg 567, problem 14.16 should say, "...plot the spinodals (T versus Φα, Φβ)." (1/27/13)
• pg 567, problem 14.17, the liquid and solid volumes are switched in part (c). (3/4/13)

Chapter 15

• pg 585-6, next to last equation above ‘Substituting...’ on 593 the parentheses are misplaced and Eqn. 15.34 the placement of the last term in brackets may be confusing. The ln applies to only the term including [(1+(1+sqrt(2))bρ)/(1+(1-sqrt(2))bρ)] or the analogous expression with Z and B. Also, on pg 585, eliminate the leading ( and the mating ). (12/30/15)
• pg 600, problem 15.13. A mixture containing 5 mol% ethane, 57 mol% propane, and 38 mol% n-butane is to be processed in a natural gas plant. Estimate the bubble-point TEMPERATURE, the liquid COEXISTING VAPOR composi­tionS, and K-ratios of the coexisting vapor for this mixture at all pressures above 1 bar at which two phases exist. Set kij = 0. Use the shortcut K-ratio method. Plot ln P versus 1/T for your results. What does this plot look like? Plot log Ki versus 1/T. What values do the Ki approach? (11/8/2014)

Chapter 17

• pg 633, at end of first paragraph, "state if aggregation" should be "state of aggregation." (5/9/12)
• pg 635, First line of the paragraph Basis. 'Note the excess hydrogen at the feed conditions' should be 'Note the excess CO at the feed conditions'. (10/5/12)
• pg 642, middle of first paragraph under "nonstoichiometric feed," it says "repeat example 17.1 with stoichiometric feed (1 mol CO2 and 2 mole H2)" where it should be "repeat example 17.1 with stoichiometric feed (1 mol CO and 2 mole H2)". The conversion for stoichiometric feed should be 40.6%. This reaction also includes an important pressure effect, and the discussion has been modified. Click here. (5/14/12)
• pg 648, Section 17.9 first paragraph, 4th line. Exothermic reactions have a negative positive slope and endothermic reactions have a positive negative slope. (6/1/16)
• pg 649, Fig. 17.2, the y-axis should be lnK instead of log10K and adjustments are needed to the curves. Approximate values can be estimated from the existing figure by adding units to lnK to each (reaction) as: +9 for (CO2+4H2=CH4+2H2O,CH4=C+2H2), +6 (CO2 + C = 2CO), +3 for (C+H2O=CO+H2, CO+H2O = CO2 + H2, 0.5 O2 + C = CO, CO2 = CO + 0.5 O2). Updated pages are available. Click here. (12/9/12)
• pg 656, the discussion with methyl chloride in equations 17.43-45 is flawed. It has been replaced, click here. There is no equation 17.45 after the revision, and the remaining equation numbers are unchanged. (12/30/15)
• pg 657-8. The energy balance should have used TR = 600K for the heat capacity integrals because the ΔHo used this TR. The discussion and results have been updated and the shortcut agrees well with the detailed van't Hoff. Updated pages are available. Click here. (4/17/12)
• pg 663, Eqn. 17.64. The term with partial pressures should be multiplied by RT. The exponent of the last term should have a minus preceeding the summation. (4/17/12)
• pg 666, Example 17.12, last line of the equation, 1/3 of the way down the page, insert the term for H2O before the equals sign, "+ 10ln(0.9009*1)". Also, the y-axis on the plot should be G/RT. (4/29/12)
• pg 680, problem 17.12, second reaction, stoichiometric coefficient for O2, 5/3 should be 5/2. (12/5/18)
• pg 682, problem 17.23(d). Replace TR of problem 17.22 with Tm. The equation should be written in terms of Tm. (7/6/13)
• pg 683, problem 17.25. Add: The thermodynamic data are per mol of surfactant, thus model the reaction written as S <--> (1/n) Mn. (7/6/13)

Chapter 18

• pg 698, Table 18.2, footnote (a), In both instances where [HCO3-] appears, it should be multiplied by [H+], e.g. it should appear as [HCO3-][H+]. (4/21/12)
• pg 708, first line, 'with' should be 'without'. (4/12/12)
• pg 710, five lines below Eqn. 18.59, change wording to become "OnFrom the right-hand side, the term 5E-3 on the left side dominates at all pH < 6. Solutions at high pH are impossible because the decreasing rightleft-hand side is too small to balance the value of 5E-3 plus increasing concentrations of the negative phosphate and hydroxide ions in the balanceproton conditon. Therefore, the solution must be at low pH where the concentraion of negative phosphate and hydroxide ions in the proton condition are balance issmall. "(10/7/12)
• pg 718, Example 18.8, last two lines should read "thus the total solubility is 2.94(0.018) = 0.0529 mol/L, or 0.0529(306.27) = 16.2 g/L." (4/29/12)
• pg 740-1. The variable Pi in the last equation of pg 740 and on the first line of pg 741 and the subscripts in the last equation of the example for ΔG, represents the total of ATP in all forms. In future printings, Pi will be replaced by C except in the equation for ΔG it will be replaced by ATP. (12/31/12)
• pg 746, Eq 18.140, RT is missing in front of the ln() term. Compare to Eq. 18.136. (12/3/18)pg 754, problem 18.8, In the fourth and subsequent printings, the concentrations of sodium and total acetate are changed to 0.05M. This is because the original statement did not have enough carbon to saturate the solution at the partial pressure given. (12/11/12)
• pg 753, problem 18.1. Part (b), calculate at 760 mmHg, part (c) calculate at 25oC.(12/31/12)
• pg 754, problem 18.8. the problem has insufficient carbon to saturate the solution at the specified partal pressure. Revise the amounts of solutes in the second sentence, "The amount of sodium carbonat is such that the total sodium concentration is 0.05 m and the total acetate concentration is 0.05 m. (12/31/12)
• pg 755, equation 18.175 should have exponent 'y' on [H+], as in [H+]y. In part (d), the values of Q should be Q11 and the statement is thus revised to ask: (d) For Fe2+, log Q11 = –9.5, and for Ni2+, logQ11 = –10.5 and the hydrolyzed ion is soluble for each. Repeat (a) for these ions but relate pH to the ratio of ion concentrations. (7/3/14)
• pg 755, problem 18.12(a), last line, the primary alcohol should have a methylene, e.g. "(ketone), -CH2OH(alcohol), -CH2-, -CH3, CH4". (12/31/12)
• pg 757, problem 18.15(a) should ask to derive Eqn. 18.90, not 18.50. (12/31/12)
• pg 757, problem 18.19, should be at 25oC.(12/31/12)

Chapter 19

• pg 766, improve wording. First, in reference to systems that can only solvate (not associate), the observed activity coefficients of A must be less than one because xAM< xoAMxA when B is present. Second, for systems in which one component A associates and B the other can neither associate nor solvate, the observed activity coefficients for A must be greater than one because xAM> xoAMxA when B is present owing to the interference of B with A from dilution.
• pg 769, Eqn. 19.25, first two terms should be x_A*x_(BM) - x_B*x_(AM) + ... (12/30/15)
• pg 769, Eqn. 19.28, first two terms should be y_A*y_(BM) - y_B*y_(AM) + ... (12/30/15)
• pg 772, Eqn. 19.33, the leading terms should be x_A*x_(BM) - x_B*x_(AM) + ... (12/30/15)
• pg 772, Eqn. 19.36, the leading terms should be y_A*y_(BM) - y_B*y_(AM) + ... (12/30/15)
• pg 775, Eqns. 19.41-43, where P appears, it is more clear to write P/Po. (2/4/16)
• pg 775-6, add carets to all phi. Two different phi symbols were inadvertently used and should be the same. Eqn 19.42 insert 2 on last two equalities. Eqn 19.45, for the term with the summation, the denominator should be RT. (7/24/14)
• pg 776, Eqn. 19.46 is more clear if each denominator includes Po. (2/4/16)
• pg 777, Eqn. 19.49, left side should be KaRT/Po. In the line immediately below, KC = KacRTc/Po and ε/k = ΔHTc/R. (2/4/16)
• pg 777, line below Eqn. 19.51, Gassoc should be Gchem. (10/5/12).
• pg 780, Figure 19.8, lower left box, replace α with Δ three times. Then replace Delta with 2*Delta five times: box in lower left of figure 19.8 (2x in equation for x_M), Example 19.4, lines 1 and 4. (12/30/15)
• pg 781, Eqn. 19.71 replace K with Δ. (12/29/15)
• pg 782, Eqn. 19.75, for solving for XAi, this is rearranged, XAi = 1/(1 + ΣjxjNd,jXDjΔijAD). The sum is over interacting donor sites, xj is the apparent mole fraction of the site host. Analogous equations are written for the donors where the summation is over interacting acceptor sites.(12/29/15)
• pg 783, the sum is over sites and the xi are the apparent molecular mole fraction of the site host. For clarity, each of the three terms of the form ln(X_i^B) + (1-X_i^B)/2 should have brackets surrounding. (12/30/15)
• pg 784, two lines above Eqn. 19.78, in the equation with Ka, replace P with P/Po. (2/4/16)
• pg 784, above Eqn. 19.78, should say, For molecules with one donor and one acceptor site, the fraction of unbonded acceptors is the joint probability that the acceptors and donors are both unbonded, and since by mass balance XA = XD, then nM/no = XAXD = (XA)2 = (nM/nT)(nT/no) = xM(nT/no). We can write the equilibrium relation for i-mer formation using 19.43 as (xi/(xMxi-1) = ((ϕMϕi-1)/(ϕiPo))PKa,i = (Δ)(nT/no). Combining the probability and equilibrium relations, xi = xi-1(XA)2Δ. A recursive relation results, xi = xM((XA)2Δ)i-1;. Now consider the balances (2/4/16)
• pg 784, the equation after Eqn. 19.78 should be n0 = nT Σ i·xM((XA)2Δ)i-1  = xM nT [1 + 2((XA)2Δ) + 3((XA)2Δ)2 + 4((XA)2Δ)3 + …] (7/26/14)
• pg 784, Eqn. 19.79, should say, nTx[1 + 2((XA)2Δ) + 3((XA)2Δ)2 + 4((XA)2Δ)3 + …] = nT xM [1/(1 - (XA)2Δ)2]
and, no/nT = xM [1/(1 - (XA)2Δ)2] (2/4/16)
• pg 786-791, Numerous modifications and clarifications required substantial changes in the text body, renumbering of equations and recalculations in examples. For revised pages, click here. (6/17/16)
• pg 792, Eqn. 19.114, Z = mZHS + (1-m) + (m-1) + (m-1)Zbond + mZatt + Zchem
Z = 1+ m(ZHS-1) + mZatt + (m-1)(1+Zbond) + Zchem
Z = 1+ m(ZHS-1) - (m-1)(ρdlng/dρ) + mZatt + Zchem = 1+ m(ZHS-1) + Zchain + mZatt + Zchem  .(11/20/12)
• pg 792, Example 19.8, line above "Substituting" should say,
Then, ηpdlng/dηp = ηp{-0.5/(1-ηp)3+3(1-ηp/2)/(1-ηp)4}/g = ηp[-0.5/(1 – ηp/2)+3/(1–ηp)]
line below "Substituting," should say, Zchain = -(m-1)(5ηp -2ηp2)/[(2-ηp)(1-ηp)]. (11/20/12)
• pg 793 & 794, change superscript "assoc" or "C" to "chem" in all equations. (11/20/12)
• pg 800, problem 14, replace reference to Eqn 15.73-76 with citation "21". (1/27/13)
• pg 800, problems 15-16 for the ESD, add citation "35". Add footnote: 35. Suresh, S.J., Elliott, J.R. 1992, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 31:2783-2794.  (1/27/13)
• pg 800, problem 15, the problem statement should say "..., use the ESD EOS with c = q = 1 for both monomer and hexamer to fit the vapor density data as accurately as possible in the least squares sense and estimate the corresponding value of Zc." (1/27/13)
• pg 800, problem 16, the problem statement for part (a) should say "... equation of state, with Zc=0.375(Zcexpt/Zchomo) where Zchomo is the Zc of the homologous n-alkane (e.g. ethane for methanol)." For part (b) it should say"Assuming an enthalpy of hydrogen bonding of 24 kJ/mole, calculate the acentric factors for methanol and ethanol according to the vdw-HB EOS."(1/27/13)
• pg 801, problem 17, the problem statement should say "Derive the association model for the Peng-Robinson model, with Zc=0.3074(Zcexpt/Zchomo) where Zchomo is the Zc of the homologous n-alkane (e.g. ethane for methanol)..." (1/27/13)
• pg 801, problem 18, the problem statement for part (a) should say "Recommend whether NAεHB/R = 4000 K or 10000 K fits dimerization best." Part (c) should be deleted. (1/27/13)
• pg 802, problem 19, Part (b) should be deleted. (1/27/13)

Appendix B

• pg 815, Eqn. B.42, equation for Q should be Q= (-q/2 - sqrt(R))^(1/3) instead of Q=(+q/2 - sqrt(R) )^(1/3). (4/22/13)

Appendix E

• pg 837 - id 1562, Chlorobenzene, correct values are ΔHf = 51.09 kJ/mol, ΔGf = 98.29 kJ/mol. (7/24/14)
• pg 844, Fourth equation for Ruthenium should have four electrons, H2RuO5 + 4H+ + 4e- <=> RuO2(s) + 3H2O. (12/31/12)
• pg 859 - correct spelling is Fluoroethane.(7/24/14).

Quick Reference

• pg 872-3,Units for solubility parameter, acidity, and basicity parameters should be (J/cm3)1/2. (4/17/12)