Freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, and osmotic pressure comprise colligative properties. These sample calculations (uakron, 12 min) illustrate how the primary effect of electrolytes is simply to dilute the solvent by a factor proportional to the moles of ions instead of the moles of undissociated molecules.

Comprehension Questions:

1. Estimate the freezing point depression of 10g of KCl in 0.1 L of water. 2. Estimate the osmotic pressure of 60g of CaCl2 in 1L of water. 3. Estimate the boiling point elevation of 150g of NaOH in 1L of water.

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## Colligative Properties

Freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, and osmotic pressure comprise colligative properties. These sample calculations (uakron, 12 min) illustrate how the primary effect of electrolytes is simply to dilute the solvent by a factor proportional to the moles of ions instead of the moles of undissociated molecules.

Comprehension Questions:

1. Estimate the freezing point depression of 10g of KCl in 0.1 L of water.

2. Estimate the osmotic pressure of 60g of CaCl2 in 1L of water.

3. Estimate the boiling point elevation of 150g of NaOH in 1L of water.